The carbohydrates are a group of naturally occurring carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones) that also contain several hydroxyl groups. • The carbohydrates include single sugars (monosaccharides) and their polymers, the oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Carbohydrates also serves in a variety of processes including recognition between cell types or recognition of cellular structure by other molecules.
Monosaccharides consists of 3 to 7 carbon atoms and are described as aldose or ketose depending of the functioney al group they,fructose,galactose,etc
here,in this chapter,we will study about carbohydrates and its types, Haworth structure, Fischer projection, mutarotation, uses of those carbohydrates,their chemical properties(1. Formation of Glycosides (Acetals) 2. Oxidation 3. Reduction)  and many more.


  • introduction to carbohydrates and its classification.
  • Fischer projection and Haworth structure of carbohydrates.
  • Mutarotation seen in carbohydrates.
  • physical properties of carbohydrates.
  • Chemical properties of carbohydrates.(1. Formation of Glycosides (Acetals) 2. Oxidation 3. Reduction ) 
  • Artificial sweetners. 

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